(仮)パンデミックに関する英語表現集 - 第二波: a second wave, the second wave

日本語

第二波

英語での表現&単語の場合は品詞

a[the] second wave
※序数詞なので原則として定冠詞を伴うはずだが、この件では冠詞は不定冠詞がつく場合もある。「第二波」の到達前という観点からは不定冠詞、という理屈が自然なように思えるが、どうも一筋縄ではいかない感じがする。
※「新型コロナウイルス感染(症)の第二派」は "a second wave of COVID-19 infections" が多いようだ(... of the coronavirus infectionsよりも)。

英語例文&出典

a second wave (不定冠詞) / second waves:

Coronavirus: Could there be a second wave?
https://www.bbc.com/news/av/52739484/coronavirus-c...
※BBC Newsの映像クリップ見出し。映像冒頭でキャスターが "Will there be a second wave of Covid-19 infections?" と述べている。ちなみに映像概要部分には "the best ways to avoid second or even third waves of Covid-19 infections" との記述もある(無冠詞)。


New covid-19 infections in Germany are now consistently below 500 a day. But as German states lift restrictions they must try to prevent a second wave. Masks are compulsory on public transport and in shops, and social-distancing rules remain in place (if often ignored).
https://www.economist.com/europe/2020/05/30/german...

Much has been said about a second wave of Covid-19 but so far it has not happened in any country easing its lockdown.
https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2020/05/28/scared...

Health officials have long been warning of a second wave of coronavirus cases to come sometime in the fall, but a global spike may come even sooner.
https://abc7news.com/will-there-be-a-second-wave-o...

"People say that's a very distinct possibility, it's standard," Trump said when asked about a second wave during a tour of a Ford factory in Michigan.
https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/21/trump-says-he-wont...

He defined a second wave thus: “There will be a first wave of the disease by itself, and then it recurs months later, and that may be a reality for many countries in a number of months’ time.” He warned Brazil, No. 2 behind the U.S. with the most cases, not to relax measures until it has more testing.
https://www.marketwatch.com/story/we-will-not-have...
※He = Mike Ryan, executive director of the World Health Organization’s Health Emergencies Program and former epidemiologist specializing in infectious disease and public health

Earlier this month, India extended its lockdown for another two weeks amid growing concerns that if nations ease restrictions too soon, the world may well see a second wave of infections.
https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-when-will-the-se...

A second wave is more or less inevitable. "This virus may just become another endemic virus in our communities," said Dr. Mike Ryan of the World Health Organization at a press conference streamed live on May 13. "This virus may never go away."
https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-when-will-the-se...

Some, like tuberculosis, make a comeback, and history shows that a second wave of a pandemic can be worse than the first.
https://www.dw.com/en/coronavirus-when-will-the-se...

Prime Minister Justin Trudeau acknowledged Thursday that his government expects a second wave of COVID-19 to sweep through the country at some point. "One of the things we know is that in pandemics, there are usually second waves," he said at his daily press briefing.
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/the-seco...
※この記事が冠詞についてのよい例になっていると思う。以下、引き続き何か所か引用する。

Medical experts are also increasingly of the view that a second wave of COVID-19 infections spreading across Canada is a question of when, not if.
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/the-seco...
※承前。

... as public-gathering limits are increased and other COVID-19-inspired restrictions are relaxed, experts are warning that there is not enough information available to prove that returning to some degree of normalcy is safe – or to alert us to the arrival of a second wave.
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/the-seco...
※承前。

While much of the public discussion has centred on the idea of a second wave hitting in the fall – when colder weather sends Canadians back indoors, where it is easy for the virus to spread – Fisman said it could happen anytime.
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/the-seco...
※承前。

the second wave (定冠詞):

The second wave will come’ and experts say Canada is not prepared
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/the-seco...
※上で参照したカナダCTVの記事の見出し。

"The second wave will come, but how acute it is or how large it rises so it doesn't overwhelm our health-care system needs to be considered," Dr. Sandy Buchman, the president of the Canadian Medical Association, told CTV News Channel on Thursday.
https://www.ctvnews.ca/health/coronavirus/the-seco...
※同カナダCTVの記事本文より。到来することが確定しているという文脈があって定冠詞のtheを用いている。

“Unlike South Korea, the UK has already had a wide range of community infections, and when reopened, the second wave is very likely,” says Jung.
https://www.wired.co.uk/article/south-korea-corona...

Singapore had coronavirus under control. Then the second wave hit
https://www.wired.co.uk/article/asia-coronavirus-s...
※見出し。

Beware of the second wave of COVID-19
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/...
※The LancetのComment記事のタイトル。

a second waveとthe second wave:

For a second wave to occur, cases of coronavirus first have to decline across the world to a "very low level" and then pick back up again "a number of months later", he said. ... "Right now, we're not in the second wave. We're right in the middle of the first wave globally."
https://www.abc.net.au/news/2020-05-27/coronavirus...
※He = WHO executive director Mike Ryan

補足・特記事項など

なお、日本語圏での「第2波」の厳密な定義は確認していない(行動制限を解除したとたんに感染者が増えることを「第2波」と呼んでよいのかどうか)。「日本独自」で「第2波」と呼んでいるように見えるが、細かい検証はしていない。

日本語の用語としての「第2波」「第二波」の出典(ウェブでは横書きなので漢数字ではなくアラビア数字の用例が多いが、用語としては各媒体の表記基準を参照すること。カギカッコの有無は各媒体の表記基準によると思われる):